Cogmed Research Timeline


Pilot indicating for the 1st time that WM is plastic and can be improved. (Klingberg et al.)


Cogmed founded in Stockholm, Sweden.


November: The training works. Children with ADHD show improved WM after Cogmed. (Klingberg et al. 2002)


January: Changes in brain activity after Cogmed - increased activation in pre-frontal & parietal brain areas after WM training. (Olesen et al., 2004)


February: Replication. Klingberg replicates the first Cogmed study with a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled, multicenter trial – drawing attention to WM training. (Klingberg et al., 2005)


Cogmed launches in the United States.


January: Cogmed for stroke victims. Adults with stroke show improved WM and attention and decreased cognitive failures after Cogmed. (Westerberg et al., 2007) May: fMRI with healthy adults after Cogmed reveals WM-related brain activity significantly increased in middle and inferior frontal gyrus. (Westerberg & Klingberg, 2007)


January: Cogmed is feasible for preschoolers. Young children exhibit improved WM and attention after Cogmed training. (Thorell et al., 2009) February: Cogmed alters brain biochemistry. Changes in the density of cortical dopamine D1 receptors observed in adults after Cogmed. (McNab et al., 2009) July: First independent Cogmed research study is published. Children improve WM, instruction following, and math after Cogmed in school. (Holmes et al., 2009) December: Genetics make a difference. Different DAT1 genotypes – which impact dopamine availability in the brain – influence WM plasticity and effect of Cogmed. (Brehmer et al., 2009)


July: Review article summarizes extant evidence for WM training. (Klingberg, 2010) September: Children with ADHD show 6 months lasting effect of Cogmed. WM training gains result in a wider effect on executive functioning than stimulant medication alone. (Holmes et al., 2010) September: Brain injured adults who did Cogmed self-report decreased cognitive failures and improved occupational performance and satisfaction. (Lundqvist et al., 2010) November: Children exhibit reduced ADHD symptoms according to parent report. (Beck et al., 2010) December: Cogmed is feasible for children with low socio-economic status. Teachers report decreased ADHD symptoms in children after Cogmed. (Mezzacappa & Buckner, 2010)


April: Adolescents born at extremely low birth weight improve their WM and verbal learning at 6 months post Cogmed. (Løhaugen et al., 2011) April: After Cogmed, children with special needs improve WM and reading comprehension. (Dahlin, 2011) May: Cogmed improves WM in preschoolers but, there is no evidence of transfer to nonverbal reasoning. (Bergman-Nutley et al., 2011) June: Individual variations in LMX1A gene – which is thought to influence transmission of dopamine - impact WM training related gains in verbal WM. (Bellander et al., 2011) August: Cogmed is feasible for hearing impaired children. Transfer effect to language (sentence repetition) observed at 6 month follow-up. (Kronenberger et al., 2011) August: Cogmed highlighted in Science as most researched executive function intervention for children. (Diamond & Lee, 2011) October: Older adults improve WM, sustained attention, and episodic memory after Cogmed. (Brehmer et al., 2011) November: Impact of Cogmed investigated in the view that WM consists of secondary memory and primary memory. Parent report improved ADHD symptoms in children. (Gibson et al., 2011) December: Children with social, emotional and behavioral problems show improved IQ, inhibition, test anxiety and teacher-reported behavior, attention and emotional symptoms after Cogmed. (Roughan & Hadwin, 2011)


March: Brain injured adults report decreased cognitive failures and improved occupational performance and satisfaction after Cogmed. (Johansson & Tornmalm, 2012) March: Older and younger adults improve on WM, a test of sustained attention, and self-rating of cognitive functioning in daily life. Gains maintained at 3 month follow –up. (Brehmer et al., 2012)